Epilepsy is a Neurological disorder that causes unpredictable seizures. It brings about a sudden rush of electrical activity in the brain.
There are two main types of seizures. Generalized seizures affect the whole brain. Focal, or partial seizures, affect just one part of the brain.
A mild seizure may be difficult to recognize. It can last a few seconds during which you lack awareness.
Stronger seizures can cause spasms and there can be uncontrollable muscle twitches. These can last from few seconds to several minutes. During a stronger seizure, some people become confused or lose consciousness. Afterward they may have no memory of it happening.
There are some reasons that might cause a seizure. They are as follows:
- High fever
- Head trauma
- Very low blood sugar
- Alcohol withdrawal
Symptoms of epilepsy:
Seizures are the main symptom of epilepsy. Symptoms differ from person to person and according to the type of seizure.
Focal (partial) seizures
Simple partial seizure doesn’t involve loss of consciousness.
Symptoms of focal seizures are as follows:
- Alterations to sense of taste, smell, sight, hearing, or touch
- Tingling and twitching of limbs
Complex partial seizures involve loss of awareness or consciousness. Other symptoms include:
- Staring blankly
- Performing repetitive movements.
Generalized seizures involve the whole brain. There are six types:
It is also called “petit mal seizures,” and cause a blank stare. This type of seizure may also cause repetitive movements like lip smacking or blinking. There’s also usually a short loss of awareness.
It causes muscle stiffness.
It leads to the loss of muscle control and it can make you fall down suddenly.
It can be characterized by repeat jerky muscle movements of the face, neck, and arms.
It causes spontaneous quick twitching of the arms and legs.
It is also called as “grand mal seizures.”
- Stiffening of the body
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Biting of the tongue
- Loss of consciousness
Causes of epilepsy:
For 6 out of 10 people with epilepsy, the cause can’t be determined. Variety of things can lead to seizures.
Possible causes include:
- Traumatic brain injury
- Scarring on the brain after a brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy)
- Serious illness or very high fever
- Stroke, which leads to cause of epilepsy.
- Other vascular diseases
- Lack of oxygen to the brain
- Brain tumor or cyst
- Dementia or alzheimer’s disease
- Maternal drug use, prenatal injury, brain malformation, or lack of oxygen at birth
- Infectious diseases such as aids and meningitis
- Genetic or developmental disorders or neurological diseases
Heredity plays a role in some types of epilepsy. In the general population, there’s a 1 percent chance of developing epilepsy before 20 years of age. Genetics can also make some people more susceptible to seizures from environmental triggers.