Mostly common among those over 65 years, a Stroke is a sudden loss of consciousness caused by an interrupted blood supply to one or more regions of the brain. The permanent effects of the stroke, sometimes also called a “brain attack”, may include a neurological dysfunction leading up to vascular dementia. There are three primary types of strokes:
This is kind of a hemorrhagic stroke, characterized by the rupture of a blood vessel (caused by an injury or an aneurysm), which then bleeds or hemorrhages. This type of stroke accounts for roughly 20% of all cases, and the root cause is typically found in hypertension or high blood pressure. Needless to say, with proper management of hypertension, the risk can be reduced greatly.
In this type of stroke, a small blood clot gets lodged in blood vessels connecting to the brain. The clot may have either formed in the brain itself or traveled from elsewhere through the bloodstream. Given the number of tiny blood vessels that connect to the brain, it is not surprising that this type of stroke accounts for nearly 80% of the strokes.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
This type of stroke is caused by a temporary disruption to the blood flow, and the symptoms – which may include light-headedness, numbness, fleeting blindness, and problems swallowing or speaking – normally disappear on their own, as the blood flow is restored quickly enough and the brain tissues fully recover.
Depending on the region of the brain to which the blood supply has been affected, the patient might suffer from different physiological consequences. In most cases, a stroke affects the Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) area of the brain, with tissue-death being observed in two general regions – (Left and Right)Superficial Divisions and (Left and Right)Lenticulostriate Branches. The impacts of an infarction in these areas are as follows:
Left MCA Superficial Division
An infarction in this part of the brain can cause a damage to the motor cortex, resulting in a Right face and arm upper-motor weakness; or a damage to the sensory cortex, resulting in right face and arm cortical type sensory loss. There might also be an inability to understand or produce speech if the impact is on either the Broca’s area or the Wernicke’s area.
- Right MCA Superficial Divisions – An infarction in this part of the brain can damage the motor cortex, causing the patient to suffer from a left face and arm upper-motor weakness. If the infarct involves the sensory cortex, the patient may also suffer a left face and arm cortical type sensory loss.
- Left MCA Lenticulostriate Branches – An infarction in this part of the brain can damage the basal ganglia and the bend on the internal capsule on the left side, causing right pure upper-motor hemiparesis. There might also be cortical deficits such as speech impairment if the larger infarcts extend to the cortex.
- Right MCA Lenticulostriate Branches – Again, if the infarction causes a damage to the basal ganglia and the bend on the internal capsule on the right side, the patients will suffer from a left pure upper-motor hemiparesis, and speech impairment, if the infarcts are large enough to extend to the cortex.
If urgent medical attention is not provided immediately to anyone showing symptoms of a stroke, the attack can have long-term effects including cognitive impairment and dementia. On the other hand, a stroke, if detected within 3 to 4.5 hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot.
If a loved one is high on the risk factors or has failed the F.A.S.T. test (Face drooping; Arm weakness; Speech difficulty; Time to act), contact us immediately at +91 7702432111 / +91 9652669351, or send us an email at email@example.com